Every now and then, i have to use date and time in haskell program or library, and always end up being confused on how to do simple things with it. It doesn’t looks like I’m alone, and same topic as been covered by Magnus’ blog
It’s mostly written for my own (later) benefits, but it might be useful in general for anyone using the time modules.
This guide assume you’re leaving on earth, and use the time package version 1.4, although i think most of it works for older time package too.
In the beginning there was seconds
Counting seconds is the most usual way to track time for computer. This is exactly what DiffTime is for in the Data.Time.Clock module, and as a bonus DiffTime can track time up to the picosecond.
let’s create a 10 seconds value:
> let t = fromIntegral 10 :: DiffTime
or 2253 milliseconds:
> let t = fromRational 2.253 :: DiffTime
You can also use dedicated conversation function that may required less type annotation by using secondsToDiffTime and picosecondsToDiffTime:
> let t = secondsToDiffTime 10 -- 10 seconds > let t = picosecondsToDiffTime 2253000000000 -- 2253 milliseconds
Seconds to time
A number of seconds need to have a referencial to make sense as time. In the POSIX world, it’s common to track time as the number of seconds since 1st of january 1970 (EPOCH). Everything to use Posix time is available in the Data.Time.Clock.POSIX module.
First the POSIXTime, like DiffTime is easily converted using the standard fromIntegral or fromRational. POSIXTime is just a type alias from NominalDiffTime, which is suppose to represent a time with a implicit starting point.
-- 10 seconds after Unix EPOCH. > let unixTime = fromIntegral 10 :: POSIXTime
The main type for tracking time in Haskell, is UTCTime.
Converting POSIXTime to and from UTCTime is very easy, and is available through the posixSecondsToUTCTime and utcTimeToPOSIXSeconds.
-- 10 seconds after unix epoch. > let utctime = posixSecondsToUTCTime $ fromIntegral 10
You can use utcTimeToPOSIXSeconds to converts back from UTCTime.
Time is often not handled through UTC when dealing with humans, but localized with timezones. Time localization is provided through the Data.Time.LocalTime module.
First the TimeZone type is self explanatory and can be easily created either with minutesToTimeZone or hoursToTimeZone.
> let tz = hoursToTimeZone 2 -- create a +0200 timezone
Then we can convert UTCTime back and forth to a ZonedTime using the utcToZonedTime and zonedTimeToUTC functions.
> let time = posixSecondsToUTCTime $ fromIntegral 10 > let ztime = utcToZonedTime tz utcTime
It’s very easy to get the current time through either UTCTime or ZonedTime:
getCurrentTime :: IO UTCTime getCurrentTimeZone :: IO TimeZone getZonedTime :: IO ZonedTime
or as POSIX Time:
getPOSIXTime :: IO POSIXTime
Time can be converted from and to their english representations using the Data.Time.Format module, with the parseTime and formatTime functions.
parseTime and formatTime are able to handle multiple types that represent time. Every type covered by the ParseTime and FormatTime typeclasses respectively can be used.
You need to import System.Locale from the old-locale package to get the defaultTimeLocale or create a locale type yourself.
First starting with formatTime which transform a time type, into a string that is parametrized through a format string.
The format string (printf-style) is quite versatile and allow all sorts of various formats. Docs
> let time = posixSecondsToUTCTime $ fromIntegral 10 > formatTime defaultTimeLocale "%c" time "Thu Jan 1 00:00:10 UTC 1970"
The opposite of this operation, transforming a string into a time type, is handled by parseTime and have similar parameters:
> parseTime defaultTimeLocale "%c" "Thu Jan 1 00:00:10 UTC 1970" :: Maybe UTCTime Just 1970-01-01 00:00:10 UTC
We usually organize time with calendar, and haskell is well covered for calendars through the Data.Time.Calendar hierarchy.
The usual calendar we use is the gregorian calendar, also known as the Western calendar.
First the Day type is very easy to marshall between Integral types.
> let day = fromGregorian 1970 1 1 -- year 1970, month 1, day 1
And to get the content of a Day back:
> let (year, month, dayOfMonth) = toGregorian day
Finally, we can now create UTCTime directly using Day and DiffTime:
> let utctime = UTCTime (fromGregorian 2011 12 16) (fromIntegral $ 12 * 3600)
And to get parts of a UTCTime:
> let day = utctDay utctime > let difftime = utctDayTime utctime
At the end of time
That’s it, i think i covered every piece that I usually use, and that are the most useful. Once you understand the basic types and how they are related to each others, you can explore the modules in more depth, to find types and functions that may be useful.
posted byon December 16, 2011.